1. the consequent policy shift of the Japanese government in the mid 1970’s to imposing strict emission controls such as desulphurization of power plant emissions and compulsory automobile catalysators, which set standards attained only 15 years later in Europe and the US
2. the concept of trade in emission certificates developed by the institutional economist and Nobel laureate Ronald Coase and incorporated in the Kyoto Protocol
3. Japan’s and Germany’s early and sustained commitment to the Kyoto Protocol in spite of massive skepticism in established academic opinion as well as opposition from some influential governments within the Western world
4. Toyota’s early risk-taking and eventual resounding success in developing cars with hybrid motors in spite of overwhelming skepticism by European and American carmakers
5. Research of German automakers in hydrogen motor technology and US government sponsored research in fuel cell technology
6. Research in binding and storing the Co2 emitted by power plants using fossil fuels
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