1. Japan’s technology policy, one of the paradigm cases of strategic pragmatism beginning in the 1970’s with MITI’s inviting five Japanese electrical engineering firms to engage in legitimate pre-competitive research cooperation on the development of main frame computers and dynamic random access memory (DRAM) chips, shifting subsequently to competitive production and reimbursement of public research subsidies, and finally to the diffusion of the “micro-electronic revolution” reaching all industrial sectors by the end of the 1980’s.
2. the widely celebrated pragmatism of the monetary policy of the US Federal Reserve under the leadership of Alan Greenspan from 1987 to 2006, which left dogmatic monetarism aside and developed a monetary framework constantly adjusted to the institutional and technological changes of a dynamically growing US economy
3. the unorthodox monetary policy of the Bank of Japan under the leadership of Toshihiko Fukui since 2002, which is rightly credited with overcoming Japan’s decade-long debt deflation following the bursting of the bubble in the early 1990’s
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